O'ring Groove Design

O’ring Groove Design

As important as the o’ring seal itself is the groove that the o’ring seats into. The groove must be designed to accommodate not just the o’ring size, but also its intended usage; be it dynamic or static operation, radial or axial loading, vacuum or high pressure.

The following information is a guide for o’ring groove dimensions for both static and reciprocating dynamic applications. The info is based on 70 Shore A Durometer hardness only.

Surface Finish

Generally surface finish for sealing surfaces are as follows…
 
63RMS maximum: For non-critical sealing surfaces such as groove sides
32RMS maximum: For static sealing on critical sealing surfaces such as groove base and top.
16RMS maximum: For dynamic sealing surfaces and for sealing gases in a face type seal.

 

Cylinder Groove Designs

Dimensions for o’rings used in static and dynamic applications for both radial and lateral loading.
Groove-Design-Cylinder

Static Cylinder Grooves

O’ring Cross Section (L) Groove Depth
Radial
(L) Groove Depth
Axial
Squeeze
Radial %
Squeeze
Axial %
(E) Max Diametrical Clearance G) Groove W
0 Back-up
±.005
G) Groove W
1 Back-up
±.005
G) Groove W
2 Back-ups
±.005
R) Groove Radius Max Eccentricity
.070 .050 – .052 .050 – .054 22–32 19–32 .004 .095 .140 .207 .005 – .015 .002
.103 .081 – .083 .074 – .080 17–24 20–30 .005 .142 .173 .240 .005 – .015 .002
.139 .111 – .113 .101 – .107 16–23 20–30 .006 .189 .210 .277 .010 – .025 .003
.210 .170 – .173 .152 – .162 15–21 21–30 .006 .283 .313 .413 .020 – .035 .004
.275 .226 – .228 .201 – .211 15–20 21–29 .007 .377 .410 .540 .020 – .035 .005

Groove Reciprocating Cylinder

O’ring Cross Section (L) Groove Depth Squeeze % (E) Max Diametrical Clearance (G) Groove W
0 Back-up
±.005
(G)
Groove W
1 Back-up
±.005
(G)
Groove W
2 Back-ups
±.005
(R) Groove Radius Max Eccentricity
.070 .055 – .057 15 – 25 .004 .095 .140 .207 .005 – .015 .002
.103 .088 – .090 10 – 17 .005 .142 .173 .240 .005 – .015 .002
.139 .121 – .123 9 – 16 .006 .189 0.210 .277 .010 – .025 .003
.210 .18 5- .188 8 – 14 .006 .283 .313 .413 .020 – .035 .004
.275 .237 – .240 11 – 16 .007 .377 .410 .540 .020 – .035 .005

 
 

Face Seal Groove Design (Flange)

Dimensions apply to all laterally loaded o’rings in static face seal grooves for both liquid pressure and vacuum applications.
Groove-Design-Flange

Groove Flange

O’ring Cross Section (L) Groove Depth Squeeze
(%)
(G) Groove W Liquid ±0.005 (G) Groove W Vacuum ±0.005 (R) Groove Radius
.070 .050 – .054 19–32 .101 – .107 .084 – .089 .005 – .015
.103 .074 – .080 20–30 .136 – .142 .120 – .125 .005 – .015
.139 .101 – .107 20–30 .177 – .187 .158 – .164 .010 – .025
.210 .152 – .162 21–30 .270 – .290 .239 – .244 .020 – .035
.275 .201 – .211 21–29 .342 –.362 .309 – .314 .020 – .035

 
 

Metric O’ring Groove Design

Featuring dimensions for metric cylinders and face seal (flange) grooves.
Groove-Design-Cylinder

Metric O’ring Groove Dimensions

O-Ring Cross Section (L) Cylinder Groove Depth (G) Cylinder Groove Width No Back Up Rings (G) Cylinder Groove Width One Back Up Ring (G) Cylinder Groove Width Two Back Up Rings (L) Flange Groove Depth (G) Flange Groove Width (R) Radius without back up ring (R) Radius with back up ring
1.0 0.8 1.4 0.65 1.4 0.2 0.2
1.2 0.95 1.7 0.8 1.7 0.2 0.2
1.3 1.05 1.8 0.9 1.8 0.2 0.2
1.5 1.2 2.1 1.0 2.1 0.2 0.2
1.6 1.3 2.2 1.1 2.2 0.3 0.2
1.9 & 2.0 1.65 2.5 3.9 5.3 1.4 2.5 0.5 0.2
2.4 2.0 3.2 4.6 6.0 1.7 3.2 0.5 0.3
2.5 2.1 3.4 4.8 6.2 1.8 3.4 0.5 0.3
2.6 2.25 3.6 5.0 6.4 1.9 3.6 0.6 0.3
2.7 2.3 3.7 5.1 6.5 1.95 3.7 0.6 0.3
3.0 2.5 3.9 5.3 6.7 2.2 3.9 0.8 0.3
3.15 2.7 4.0 5.4 6.8 2.3 4.0 0.8 0.4
3.5 3.1 4.8 6.2 7.6 2.7 4.8 1.0 0.4
4.0 3.5 5.4 7.1 8.8 3.1 5.4 1.0 0.4
4.5 4.0 6.0 7.7 9.4 3.4 6.0 1.0 0.4
5.0 4.3 6.7 8.4 10.1 3.9 6.7 1.0 0.4
5.5 4.8 7.3 9.0 10.7 4.4 7.3 1.2 0.6
5.7 5.0 7.7 9.4 11.1 4.6 7.7 1.2 0.6
6.0 5.3 8.2 9.9 11.6 4.8 8.2 1.2 0.6
6.35 5.6 8.7 10.4 12.1 5.1 8.7 1.2 0.6
6.5 5.7 8.9 10.6 12.3 5.4 8.9 1.2 0.6
7.0 6.1 9.5 12.0 14.5 5.8 9.5 1.5 0.6
7.5 6.5 14.4 12.9 15.4 6.2 10.4 1.5 0.6
8.0 7.0 11.0 13.5 16.0 6.6 11.0 1.5 0.6
8.4 7.5 11.7 14.2 16.7 6.9 11.7 2.0 0.6
9.0 7.8 12.5 15.0 17.5 7.4 12.5 2.0 0.6
9.5 8.3 13.3 15.8 18.3 7.8 13.3 2.0 0.6
10.0 8.7 13.5 16.0 18.5 8.3 13.5 2.0 0.6
11.0 9.6 15.5 18.0 20.5 9.1 15.5 3.0 0.6
12.0 10.5 16.8 19.3 21.8 10.3 16.8 3.0 0.6
14.0 12.2 19.0 21.5 24.0 11.6 19.0 3.0 0.6
15.0 13.2 20.0 22.5 25.0 12.5 20.0 3.0 0.6
16.0 14.0 21.5 24.0 26.5 13.5 21.5 3.0 0.6


 
 

Dovetail Groove Designs

In a face seal, a dovetail and half-dovetail groove are ideal for holding an o’ring in place during installation and operation. This can allow more streamlined maintenance and shorter downtime with less effort required to secure the seal during installation. Especially handy if the face seal is assembled upside-down. However, due diligence is required when designing a dovetail groove due to limited void space compared to a conventional square groove. This problem can be aggravated by volume swell. Therefore dovetail grooves are not recommended unless end use conditions and their effects upon the seal are thoroughly taken into consideration.

Note: Top radius (R) is a critical dimension; too small a radius can damage the seal during installation, while excess radius can lead to extrusion failure.
Dovetail Groove

Dovetail Groove

O’ring CS Groove Depth (L) Squeeze (%) Groove Width (G) Retainer Radius (R) Groove Radius (R₁)
.070
±.003
.053 – .055 23 .057 – .061 .005 .015
.103
±.003
.081 – .083 21 .083 – .087 .010 .015
.139
±.004
.111 – .113 20 .113 – .117 .010 .031
.210
±.005
.171 – .173 18 .171 – .175 .015 .031
.275
±.006
.231 – .234 16 .231 – .235 .015 .062
.375
±.007
.315 – .319 16 .315 – .319 .020 .093


Half-Dovetail Groove

Half Dovetail Groove

O’ring CS Groove Depth (L) Squeeze (%) Groove Width (G) Retainer Radius (R) Groove Radius (R₁)
.070
±.003
.053 – .055 23 .064 – .066 .005 .015
.103
±.003
.083 – .085 19 .095 – .097 .010 .015
.139
±.004
.113 – .115 18 .124 – .128 .010 .031
.210
±.005
.173 – .176 17 .190 – .193 .015 .031
.275
±.006
.234 – .238 15 .255 – .257 .015 .062
.375
±.007
.319 – .323 14 .350 – .358 .020 .093


 
 

Triangular Crush Groove Design

A static triangular crush seal groove is a simple design and ideal when space is limited and/or wall thickness is too thin for a conventional groove. It achieves the same sealing efficiency with either internal or external pressure. However there is very little void space and volume swell can easily lead to extrusion failure. O’rings in triangular crush grooves are permanently deformed once installed, therefore cannot be reused and are discarded after use.
Crush Groove

Triangular Crush Groove

Cross Section (W) ± Groove Depth (L) ± (-0)
.070″ ±.003″ 0.092″ +.003″
.103″ ±.003″ 0.136″ +.005″
.139″ ±.004″ 0.184″ +.007″
.210″ ±.005″ 0.277″ +.010″
.275″ ±.006″ 0.363″ +.015″
1.50mm ±0.08mm 1.98mm +0.08mm
2.00mm ±0.08mm 2.64mm +0.08mm
2.50mm ±0.08mm 3.30mm +0.13mm
3.00mm ±0.10mm 3.96mm +0.13mm
4.00mm ±0.13mm 5.28mm +0.18mm
5.00mm ±0.13mm 6.61mm +0.25mm
6.00mm ±0.15mm 7.93mm +0.25mm
8.00mm ±0.18mm 10.57mm +0.38mm
9.00mm ±0.18mm 11.89mm +0.38mm


 
 

Imperial PTFE O’ring Groove Design

Due to PTFE’s (Teflon®) highly limited deflection ability, the following table has suggested groove dimensions for open face seal (flange) type grooves using imperial PTFE o’rings. PTFE o’rings in radially loaded closed grooves are generally not recommended, however if this is unavoidable, PTFE o’rings can be heated to around 100°C to allow them to become slightly flexible, aiding installation.

O’ring CS Minimum Squeeze Groove Width (G)
.070 ±.003 .005 .080
.103 ±.003 .006 .110
.139 ±.004 .007 .160
.210 ±.005 .008 .240
.275 ±.006 .010 .315